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Open Educational Resources: Textbooks and Books

The 5 R's of Openness


GREEN: No limitations
ORANGE?: Varies by resource and may have limitations
RED: Right not granted


 Make, own, and control copies of the content


Use the content in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)


Adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself
(e.g., translate the content into another language)


Combine the original or revise content with other open content to create something new
(e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)


Share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others
(e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)

This key is meant to provide an at-a-glance overview of a collection's openness. Be sure to read and understand the license for each OER you choose to use. 

Source: Academic Librarians and OER: Access, Advocacy, and Activism by Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani, Caroline Daniels, and Brenda Smith. July 25, 2015. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Open Textbooks

Open Books