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PGM 255 Swing Concepts Of Teaching: Assignment: Time Required for Developing Expertise

The assignment


Intermediate Teaching and Golf Club Alteration

Extra Credit Research paper

Due: April 16th by 9:30am-10 points off for each day late (late is considered not handed in at the beginning of class)

Topic:  Conduct a literature search and 'prove or disprove' that it takes 10,000 hours of practice to become an expert.

Purpose: To allow you the opportunity to agree/disagree with the philosophy that it takes 10,000 hours or more to attain mastery at a given skill. You must find 5 sources to support your agreement or disagreement. You cannot just say, “I disagree and thus it is wrong.”

Requirements: Reading Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell is required. Reading The talent code. by Daniel Coyle is highly recommended. In addition, you should use the research done by Dan Maynard to supplement your research (includes materials on reserve at Wiggins Library). He has done the bulk of the work; you just need to read the material.

Length: As requested by you the student, the length of the paper is up to you. You determine what length you think is needed to demonstrate adequate research and discovery.


-Introduction covering your agreement or disagreement of the 10,000-expertise theory.

-Discussion on exactly what the 10,000-hour theory is. You must document external resources in your explanation. You cannot just say, “The 10,000 hour theory is that it takes time to get better.” You must cite a resource.

-Agree/Disagree with the theory and why. Again, you must cite resources to support this. You can use Outliers as a resource if you think it will help your paper.

-Conclusion: What have you learned that you did not know before from doing the research? What ideas will you incorporate into your teaching? Will this influence the way you develop juniors and raise your children?

- References page: APA format is required. This page should have between 5 and 10 sources that I can cross reference throughout your paper. [see the ‘Your score’ tab on the library PGM 230 Research Guide]



Ground Zero: "Long Term Athlete Development" in TPI Certified Golf Fitness Instructor - Level 2 Junior. page 9.

Reconstructed References page for "Long Term Athlete Development" in TPI Certified Golf Fitness Instructor - Level 2 Junior. page 9.

Ericsson, K., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363 Retrieved from 

Gibbons, T., & United States Olympic Committee. (2002). The path to excellence: A comprehensive view of development of U.S. Olympians who competed from 1984-1998. s.l: United States Olympic Committee. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from

Gustin, W.C. (1985). The development of exceptional research mathematicians. In B.S. Bloom (Ed.) Developing Talent In Young People (pp. 270-331). New York: Ballantine Books.

Hayes, J.R. (1981). The Complete Problem Solver. Philadelphia, PA: Franklin Institute Press.

[(Helsen, Starkes, & Hodges, 1998) - reference TBD]

Kalinowski, A.G. (1985). The development of Olympic swimmers. In B.S. Bloom (Ed.) Developing Talent In Young People (pp. 139-192). New York: Ballantine Books.

Monsaas, J.A. (1985). Leaning to be world-class tennis player. In B.S. Bloom (Ed.) Developing Talent In Young People (pp. 211-269). New York: Ballantine Books.

Simon, H.A. & Chase, W.G. (1973). Skill in chess. American Scientist, 61, 394-403.

Sosniak, L.A. (1985). Learning to be a concert pianist. In B.S. Bloom (Ed.) Developing Talent In Young People (pp. 19-67). New York: Ballantine Books.

Wallingford, R. (1975). Long distance running [Chapter X]. In Taylor, A.W. (Ed.) The Scientific Aspects of Sports Training (pp. 118-130). Springfield IL: Bannerstone House.


Terms & Concepts

Innate talent vs. Intense practice.

Nature vs. Nurture

Deliberate practice vs. training

Innate capabilities

Inherited natural ability

High achievers


Gifted persons

Innate aptitudes

Expert performance

Successful people (social environment)


The talent myth



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