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ITS 460 Information Warfare: Special Topics

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Conficker Worm

Conflicker worm is a computer worm targeting Microsoft Windows systems. You can find library resources on this topic with this link:


PRISM is a clandestine mass electronic surveillance program operated by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) since 2007. The disclosures were published by The Guardian and The Washington Post on June 6, 2013. (Wikipedia)

 The followings are some articles about the PRISM program:

Russia-Georgia War of 2008

Social media in the Arab Spring

  • "Social Media and the Arab Spring: Politics Comes First." The International Journal of Press/Politics 18.2 (2013): 115-37. Print. Link
  • Rachel Ehrenberg. "Social Media Didn't Spur Arab Spring."Science News, sec. 181: 9. 2012. Print. Link
  • "The Arab Spring and Social Media Audiences: English and Arabic Twitter Users and their Networks." American Behavioral Scientist 57.7 (2013): 871-98. Print. Link
  • Raed Omari. "Social Media's Role Exaggerated After Arab Spring Uprisings -- Expert." McClatchy - Tribune Business News 2013. Print. Link
  • Gillespie, Marie. "BBC Arabic, Social Media and Citizen Production: An Experiment in Digital Democracy before the Arab Spring." Theory, Culture & Society 30.4 (2013): 92-130. Print. Link
  • EMMA HALL. "Year After Arab Spring, Digital, Social Media Shape Region's Rebirth: Marked by their Proven Influence in the Uprisings, Facebook, Twitter, Mobile Define 'Normal' Life--and Marketers Adjust Accordingly." Advertising Age, sec. 83: 10. 2012. Print. Link
  • Barnsby, Robert E., and ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS. Social Media and the Arab Spring: How Facebook, Twitter, and Camera Phones Changed the Egyptian Army's Response to Revolution., 2012. Print. Link
  • Fuchs, Christian. "Social Media, Riots, and Revolutions."Capital & Class 36.3 (2012): 383-91. Print. Link


Stuxnet is a computer worm discovered in June 2010 that is believed to have been created by the United States and Israel to attack Iran's nuclear facilities. Stuxnet initially spreads via Microsoft Windows, and targets Siemens industrial control systems. While it is not the first time that hackers have targeted industrial systems, it is the first discovered malware that spies on and subverts industrial systems, and the first to include a programmable logic controller (PLC) rootkit. (Wikipedia)

The followings are some articles about Stuxnet:

Tallinn Manual

The Tallinn Manual (Original title: Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare) is an academic, non-binding study on how international law, in particular the jus ad bellum and international humanitarian law, apply to cyber conflicts and cyber warfare. The Tallinn Manual was written at the invitation of the Tallinn-based NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence by an international group of approximately twenty experts between 2009 and 2012. The Tallinn Manual was published in March 2013 by Cambridge University Press. (Wikipedia)

The followings are some articles related to the Tallinn Manual:

Titan Rain

Titan Rain was the designation given by the federal government of the United States to a series of coordinated attacks on American computer systems since 2003; they were known to have been ongoing for at least three years. The attacks were labeled as Chinese in origin, although their precise nature, e.g., state-sponsored espionage, corporate espionage, or random hacker attacks, and their real identities – masked by proxy, zombie computer, spyware/virus infected – remain unknown. The activity known as "Titan Rain" is believed to be associated with an Advanced Persistent Threat. (Wikipedia)

The followings are some articles about Titan Rain: